Information comes from Robert Hoberman (individual telecommunications). Which seems to be generally representative of your Jewish dialects away from a number of other urban centers in the part also, plus Aqra and Rawanduz.
But not, within dialect you will find an incredibly unusual change out of h so you’re able to h from the 3rd person singular possessive suffixes: resIh ‘his head’
Azerbaijan (Azer): The text of the Jews out-of Iranian Azerbaijan, and groups into the Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and you will Yuksekova. Data is out of Garbell (1965).
Halabja (Hala): The language of Jews of Halabja toward Iran-Iraq edging. This is extremely nearby the Jewish dialects of your own most other metropolitan areas of the area, also Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, Sanandaj, Baneh, and you will Panjwin. Recommendations arises from my personal cards.
We’re going to examine this type of dialects with regard to twenty-five phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and you may lexical conditions. After the Hetzron (1976, 98), i’ve chose simply designs once the conditions for classification. You will find picked good disproportionate level of morphological requirements, and we will give them unique weight, again following Hetzron, but other mutual designs was considered as well.
Mention as well as the more challenging conservation plus insertion of during the Koy Sanjaq reported because of the Hoberman (1985)
Once we contrast the new dialects regarding NENA we’re going to you will need to dictate the the quantity that the newest dialects share a definite pattern and this differs from Turoyo and Mandaic. At the same time, we shall get a hold of packages of isoglosses within NENA.
(1) Fret is penultimate in every the NA languages, also Turoyo and you may Mandaic however about around three easternmost Jewish dialects, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and you can Halabja, which generally stress the final syllable. These types of dialects seem, in this way, as with many others (Garbell 1965), to exhibit an unusually strong determine off Kurdish.
(2) Most of the NENA dialects features blended h and you may x. In Hertevin the result is h, and you can almost everywhere else it’s x: Hertevin haye ‘life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and you will dmehli ‘I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]good ‘new’, Jilu ptIxli ‘I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and you will +damxotu ‘you sleep’ (Fox 1992, 55).(4)
Each other Turoyo and you may Mandaic maintain separate h and x. Particular NENA dialects keeps reintroduced h because a borrowing from the bank from Kurdish or Arabic or out of Ancient Syriac otherwise Hebrew.(5) However, new passed on words constantly suggests x. Like, during the Tisqopa discover borrowed Arabic terminology, instance sahabi ‘friend’, which have h, but handed down words such as for example laxma ‘bread’ continuously let you know x. (6)
(3) All the NENA dialects except Hertevin and Zakho have lost very hours out of passed on. For example, for the Aradhin we discover arba ‘four’, upra ‘earth’ add up to Syriac arb an excellent and you may afra. During the Hertevin plus Zakho, passed down was on a regular basis ?: Hertevin so?a good ‘seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?la ‘she heard’ (Meehan and you may Alon 1979, 189). In several other dialects some are kept because ?, and, in the rest, is fully gone completely. Some languages keeps reintroduced borrowed of Arabic or Kurdish. Eg, Halabja has ayza ‘good’.
(4) Within the earlier dialects away from Aramaic, as with Tiberian Hebrew, t turned into [Theta] after a good vowel. It alternation has been lexicalized inside NENA, that have often t otherwise [Theta] distributed as a consequence of whole paradigms, whether preceded from the a great vowel or not. Including, inside the Aradhin the verb ‘come’ presently has [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya ‘it (fem.) comes’, and [Theta]e:los angeles ‘she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). Subsequent, in certain dialects the fresh new phoneme [Theta] has actually experienced more change. In some dialects [Theta] features blended returning to t, and also in other people it’s become s or even l.(7) In a single dialect, Jilu, it’s become h immediately after which been erased except on start of a term. The 3 easternmost Jewish languages express the brand new stunning move regarding [Theta] to one. The outcome ones transform is visible regarding the term ‘house’ hence seems in numerous dialects because the getting:[Theta beneficial]a (Tkhuma), biya (Jilu), beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and besa (Sanandaj Religious).